Last updated : 21/7/2020

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)

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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, acute viral disease. FMD is characterized by the formation of vesicles (fluid-blisters) and erosions in the mouth and on the nose, teats and feet. Although it is rarely fatal in adult animals, it causes serious production losses and is a major constraint in international trade.

FMD virus (FMDV) mainly affects members of the order Artiodactyla (cloven-hooved mammals). Most species in this order are thought to be susceptible to some degree. Important livestock hosts include cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, water buffalo and yaks. Wildlife species like wild boar, deer, African buffalo are also susceptible to FMD.

FMD is not readily transmissible to humans and is not a public health risk.

Geographical distribution & Latest situation in our region

FMD is endemic in several parts of Asia. Australia, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, New Caledonia, Brunei, Vanuatu are currently free of FMD. However, FMD is a transboundary animal disease that can occur sporadically in any areas currently free of the disease.

FMD is the first disease for which the OIE established an official list of disease-free countries. Through a transparent, science-based and impartial procedure, countries/territories can be officially recognised as free of the disease either in their entirety or in defined zones and compartments.

Disease status in our region

List of FMD free Members (According to Resolution No. 7 June 2020)

  • FMD free where vaccination is not practiced:

Australia, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore,New Caledonia, Brunei, Vanuatu

  • FMD free where vaccination is practiced:

  • FMD free zone where vaccination is not practiced:

Chinese Taipei (Map); Malaysia (Map);

  • FMD free zone where vaccination is practiced:

Chinese Taipei (Map)

List of Members with endorsed official control programme for FMD According to Resolution No. 8  May 2020)

China (People’s Rep. of), India, Thailand


For More information: Official OIE statuses in respect of FMD


Regional Strategies and Activities


OIE Reference Laboratories

In Asia and the Pacific region, there are 3 OIE Reference Laboratories for FMD, which are in China, Korea(RO) and Thailand. They provide technical advice and can offer training opportunities for personnel from OIE Members. They coordinate studies to progress scientific and technical understanding and capacity building in collaboration with other laboratories or organisations, including through the OIE Laboratory Twinning   programmes. The OIE members in Asia and the Pacific Region have been submitting FMD samples (free-of-cost) for disease confirmation and molecular characterization to OIE reference laboratories that has greatly strengthened surveillance, diagnosis and implementation of control activities.


International Standards on FMD

 Other Resources and Materials on FMD